1: What incentives do politicians have to join parties, rather than run and govern as independents? 2: What is the difference between a “weak” party and a “strong” party? 3: Were American parties strong or weak in the 1950s and 1960s? Are parties stronger, weaker, or about the same today? 4: What is “racial realignment”? How has it changed the composition of American parties since the 1950s and 1960s?