Standards can be technical, performance-based or process-based. Distinguish
between these three categories and identify the category that applies to standards
for environmental management systems.
2. What are the main similarities and differences between BS 7750, EMAS and ISO
14001? Is one of these systems to be preferred over the other two?
402 contemporary environmental accounting
3. What are the main functions of good environmental management? Which
environmental management tools are related to each of these functions? Are
there any environmental management tools common to all functions?
4. Eco-control has been explained with use of three different approaches.What is
eco-control? Explain the difference between the three approaches. Is there a link
between the integrated approach and eco-efficiency? Explain.
5. Eco-control has five procedural steps.Think of an important corporate environmental intervention (e.g. emission of waste-water). With reference to this
corporate environmental intervention, explain each procedure and consider the
effect of each procedure on environmental management.
6. ‘Information management is the core of any environmental management
system.’ Do you agree with this statement? How important is accounting
information in an environmental management system? Outline three of the main
characteristics of environmental accounting that provide necessary support for
sound environmental management.
7. Portfolios are constructed to reduce risk for a given level of economic return. In
this context, why would a company be interested in constructing an ecoefficiency portfolio?
8. Is there any notion of a trade-off between risk and return involved in an ecoefficiency portfolio matrix? How are ‘green stars’ and ‘dirty dogs’ related? In
your answer cite examples from an industry with which you are familiar.
9. Implementation plays a critical part in environmental management.Why might
environmental management fail at the implementation stage? Can these reasons
for failure be corrected or avoided?
10. Redesign and implementation of accounting and reporting systems to incorporate environmental and ecological considerations faces a number of practical
considerations. List and rank four of these considerations. Is implementation of
environmental and ecological accounting likely to be more difficult for small or
for large companies? Explain.