Hello, I am looking for a person who has a great experience with news media article analysis. This isn’t a normal type of research paper, so you should read and follow the guidelines carefully. This paper is about how certain issue is being portrayed differently or similarly by different news outlets. The bulk of papers should be analysis of the language and images used in each news article, NOT the summary of the certain issues. The certain issues is related “protests after the George Floyd incident”. I uploaded very specific guidelines and sources. Also, at the end, you additionally expected to write 150~200 words of Dear Reader Letter. Every in-text citation and works cited page should be done with MLA 8 format. If you feel something is unclear, please contact me immediately in order to discuss the problem.
This assignment, the culmination of the work you’ve done over the course of the term, asks you to make an argument about the way a human rights issue, included in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and relevant today, is framed in news media coverage of a current event.
A note about terms: In this Writing Assignment Overview and in the individual assignment sheets, the following terms will be used:
● Publication – refers to news source as a whole (e.g., New York Times, China Daily, etc.)
● Article – refers to the individual article(s) that you’ll be analyzing (e.g., “Why all the fuss about the Mosque,” printed in China Daily)
● UDHR article – refers to the article from the UDHR that you’re examining (e.g., Article 1)
● Scholarly source – refers to any articles, books, or book chapters from a peer-reviewed journal or scholarly manuscript (e.g., Jia, Lile, Samuel C. Karpen, and Edward R. Hirt. “Beyond Anti- Muslim Sentiment: Opposing the Ground Zero Mosque as a Means to Pursuing a Stronger America.” Psychological Science, vol. 22, no. 10, 2011, pp. 1327-35. PubMed, doi: 10.1177/0956797611417256.)
● Source(s) – any source, publication, article, scholarly source, that you use for your paper.
● Frame – “Frame” is a metaphor for the structure within which something is presented that shapes the way we view it. Just as a picture can be framed in different ways to affect the way we view it, we can frame the way we present information and events. Analyzing the frame is analyzing the way something is presented, portrayed, treated, and shaped. In this assignment, you will be exploring the way a human rights issue is framed within the context of news coverage of a current event. In other words, we will be analyzing how the human right is contextualized.
Analyzing News Media Sources: Determining “Frame” and Reliability. The inclusion of the newspapers on the preceding list doesn’t make them reliable sources of information. All publications and media have a perspective (point of view) and agenda. Part of your assignment this term is to determine what that perspective and agenda is–the “frame”–and the reliability of the source by asking critical questions of the articles.
Having a frame–a perspective/agenda/point of view–does not make something unreliable or reliable. By recognizing and analyzing the frame, however, we can discern and evaluate reliability. By analyzing multiple frames, we can also see each more clearly, and analyze our own frames. We can take a broader and more balanced view of critical human issues, which is the ultimate goal of this assignment.
To get the most from the whole project and do your best work, you will need to go beyond simply evaluating the reliability and framework of a publication and do a deeper analysis of specific news articles about your chosen event and how they frame both the event and your chosen human rights issue, implicitly or explicitly or both.
For your project, you will need to do a close reading of each article, and compare and contrast them to one another, asking these questions:
● What do you know about the publication that published this article? What do you know about the reporter/editor? Is it a state, corporate, or validated independent media publication or article? What makes it more or less credible than others?
● What is the tone and vocabulary of the article? What adjectives or verbs are used to describe the event?
● What sources does the article’s author rely on? Who or what is quoted?
● What is the position/location and length of the article? How is it presented on the publication’s page/site?
● If images are used, what are their content and impact?
● How does the narrative change or stay the same with each article?
● What is left out of the story/article? What is included?
● Is something presented as a problem? If so, is the problem defined? Are solutions proposed? Are causes diagnosed? Are moral judgments made or implied?
● Is something presented as an isolated event or as part of a larger pattern?
● How might the previous questions reveal biases in the news story? What do they reveal about the news article’s credibility?
● What overall impression does the article convey about your topic (the current event and/or article from the UDHR)
● What difference does it make if one news source describes an event in a different way than another?
● What issues should a reader keep in mind when reading the news stories you selected?
● Why is it important to read several news sources before drawing conclusions?
● Compare and contrast sources from one region to those from another. In what ways are they different or similar in terms of their coverage? What information is included? What is excluded? What is significant about this?
● What do your answers to the above questions reveal about how the event/issue is framed?
For this assignment, do the following:
1. Analyze at least 4 English-language news articles about a current event related to your chosen human right covered in the UDHR. In analyzing your articles, think about:
o What is included and what is left out?
o Is the event presented as a problem? Does it define the problem? Present a cause? A solution? Make a moral judgment (implied or explicit)?
o Is the event treated as part of a pattern, or as a standalone event?
o What is significant about the way the event/human rights issue is presented?
2. Pose a level-3 research question about how your chosen human rights issue is framed in news media coverage of your current event. As you come up with your question (and its significance), think about: How does your media analysis contribute to understanding the human rights issue, current event, media coverage, and their convergence? What thoughts would you like to leave with us?
3. Answer the question by considering other views, making an assertion about the issue, and backing up that assertion with compelling and logical reasons, supported with specific evidence, and based on analysis and research. Your question should be addressed convincingly in a 5-7 pages(1250-1750 words) paper. You should use at least 2 scholarly articles from a peer-reviewed academic journal to support your answer to the question.
4. Provide one paragraph that establishes the relevant historical background of your current event and connects your current event to your chosen UDHR article.
5. In 250 words or less, write a Dear Reader Letter to your TA answering the following:
o What are the strengths of the final draft? What problems remain?
o What challenges did you encounter this term in writing this project? How did you overcome them?
o If you had two more days to work on the paper, what would you do?
o What lessons for the future (for writing, for life, or both) did you learn in completing this project? What are your takeaways?
This rest of this assignment sheet includes the following:
I. Guidelines for the components of the Final Draft
II. Grading rubric
III. Submission checklist
I. Guidelines for the Components of the paper
This assignment asks you to write a particular kind of paper: an academic argument based on scholarly research. Such an argument follows a well-defined structure that is common across many disciplines. Once you master the structure, you may find it useful in other courses and outside of academia too.
Following these guidelines for the components of the final draft will help you write a strong and well-organized argument.
Audience: Write as a scholar-in-training to an audience of intelligent, well-informed people who do not necessarily know this material and who may have a different perspective on it than you do, or at least might not have thought of your thesis before reading your paper. Engage your readers in the issue and convince them of your thesis and the significance of the issue and your argument. Assume that they are expecting you to follow the norms of academic citation and to make the context of your paper clear. Also see Easy Writer (EW), pp. 48-53 and pp. 240-243.
Introduction: Your introduction introduces the issue and announces your argument. It needs to be at least a paragraph and include the thesis. The question being answered by your paper’s argument needs to be clearly stated, either as an explicit question or a very clearly implied one. Include the following elements in whatever order works best for the flow of your argument:
Frame the issue in an interesting way that shows its significance
Introduce your chosen UDHR article, human right, and current event
Pose a level 3 research question
Answer it with a thesis
Thesis: The thesis answers the level 3 research question you ask in your introduction and lays out the structure of your argument, creating the reader’s expectations for what is to come in the analysis:
1. Acknowledges an alternative view of the subject—the opposition (an “although” point)
2. Refers to the subject of the question
3. Makes an assertion about the subject (your position on the issue)
4. Provides at least 3 reasons (sometimes fewer, sometimes more) to support the assertion,
listed in the most logical and persuasive order for your argument.
Stated as a formula: TS = O + S + A + R (3+)
Thesis Sentence = Opposition + Subject + Assertion + Reasons (3+)
Here is an example related to the assignment (not a current event; topic used as an example in the instructions for Assignment 1):
Although the editorial stance of most news publications is generally in favor of religious freedom, press coverage of the request to build a mosque close to the former site of the World Trade Center shows a distinct tinge of Islamophobia, as evidenced by an analysis of the language, images, and sources of diverse news media outlets.
Note on Reasons: Three or more reasons is a guide to help you think through your assertion and evidence thoroughly. Why do you assert what you assert? Those are your reasons, and the reasons are based on the evidence you find, and the particular problem you are exploring. There is no magic number. Sometimes, one reason will suffice. Sometimes, you need many more than three. But for many situations, three is about right. The purpose of giving you a number is to guide you away from simply restating your main idea or listing a lot of random evidence and to guide you toward a sufficiently focused, coherent, fully developed argument with clearly stated reasons to support your assertion.
Note on Thesis: Your thesis can also be one or more sentences, depending upon what you want to say about your topic. For this paper, the thesis needs to be grounded in an analysis of texts (not theoretical or hypothetical, but also not an “information dump”).
Here is an example of a thesis from the sciences:
Although some argue that it is too risky to use gene drive technology to eradicate the mosquito that transmits malaria, the potential benefits far outweigh the risks. The crisis caused by the sharp increase in malaria worldwide is real and demands an immediate response. Gene-drive technology designed to stop malaria is available, cost-effective, and ready to be released in controlled tests. It is also the only currently viable option.
Or another version in 1 sentence:
Although some argue that it is too risky to use gene drive technology to eradicate the mosquito that transmits malaria, the potential benefits for public health far outweigh the risks, politically, financially, socially, and ethically.
Here is another example:
Although the Hebrew creation story told in Genesis is often interpreted as a literal account of how God created the world in 7 days, a mythical-historical interpretation provides greater insight not only into early Hebrew culture and other creation myths, but also evokes the wonder of creation in a way that fits with contemporary science and current understandings of the way the world works.
Or in a shorter sentence:
Although the Hebrew creation story told in Genesis is often interpreted as a literal account of how God created the world in 7 days, a mythical-historical interpretation has more explanatory and evocative power historically, culturally, and spiritually.
Note on the writing process: Even though the introduction and thesis usually come first in the final draft of the paper, many writers find it helps to write these after they have a rough draft, and then revise and re-order the paper accordingly. Many times writers find it necessary to revise the introduction, thesis, and structure of the paper multiple times before the essay is complete. We often don’t know what we think or exactly what point we want to make until we have written at least one draft. Be patient with your ideas and let them unfold as you write.
Significance: This is the “so what” argument of your paper: How does your essay, and your thesis/argument in particular, contribute to a better understanding of the issue you address? Why does it matter that the problem be addressed and resolved as well as possible? Your answer to these questions is your paper’s significance. It’s your reason for writing the entire paper. If you can’t determine significance, then you most likely do not have an argument yet.
Significance does not only refer to the significance of the issue general, but most importantly also to the significance of your thesis, your assertion. Further, the “although” part of your thesis (the “O”/Opposition part of the formula) introduces the counterargument/alternative view with which you are engaging and gives you the context for significance: unless someone could disagree with your assertion, you do not have an argument. If someone could disagree with your assertion, then you have an argument.
To determine significance, ask yourself why it’s important that we understand your assertion: what value are you bringing to the discussion? When determining the significance of your assertion, you can
● Discuss the issue’s historical significance or its contemporary significance or both, as long as you relate it to your assertion
● Discuss it in terms of finding issues in the scholarly debate (the conceptual problem) and addressing those issues. Sometimes, however, such as in this assignment for this course, you may be addressing issues you have discovered through examining primary sources (your news articles) and reading widely in secondary sources (your scholarly sources)
Title: Provide a title that focuses on the main point you are making about the issue and stimulates interest in it. If you want to be more creative with your title, consider adding a subtitle to give your reader direction and clarity to your creativity. Here are examples based on the thesis examples above:
● Islamophobia and Freedom of Religion: The “Ground Zero Mosque” Debate in News Media
● Gene-Drive Technology: The Best Solution for Eradicating Malaria
● In Defense of a Mythical-Historical Interpretation of Genesis
Context: Accurately establish the historical and cultural contexts of relevant events and texts for both 1) the topic you are exploring and for 2) any sources you use.
Provide enough context for a reader outside of the course to follow your reasoning. For instance, the first time you refer to an author, even if the author is in your Works Cited and even if the people in your course know who you are talking about, write the full name and give enough background information to make it clear why you are referencing this author.
The context can be woven into any part of the paper where it is appropriate and needed for the reader to understand and be persuaded by your argument.
For the Media Analysis Paper, provide a paragraph immediately following the introduction that provides this context.
Opposition (Counterargument) and Rebuttal: Consider at least one alternative view to your assertion. This is your opposition, also known as your counterargument. Discuss its merits and flaws fairly, presenting evidence for it. Then show why your argument is better, rebutting the counterargument with evidence for your argument. You don’t have to claim that your interpretation is “right” or “true;” you just have to persuade your readers that it is the strongest among competing views.
The counterargument is also your check to see if you have a level 3 argument. If you don’t have an opposition, then you don’t have a level 3 argument (you also don’t have a significant argument).
The counterargument and rebuttal are built into the thesis as the “opposition” and “assertion” (the O and the A parts of the thesis formula). Develop them in one of more paragraphs in the body of the paper.
Place the counterargument and rebuttal wherever they flow best with the rest of the paper and are most persuasive for your argument. The thesis forecasts the counterargument early on in the paper, and sometimes you may need to go into some detail about it for the set up of the paper. For most essays, though, the fully developed counterargument and rebuttal section of the paper works best after thoroughly presenting the evidence for your argument. In any case, use transitions to make it clear to your reader what you are arguing for and what you are arguing against.
Organization: Organize the body of the paper with several paragraphs on the counterargument and rebuttal and on each of the supporting reasons provided in the thesis. Discuss the reasons in the order presented in the thesis.
Write a topic sentence for each paragraph that makes a point about each reason, tying it explicitly to your thesis.
Analyze and use specific evidence from texts to support each reason and illustrate your point: summarize, paraphrase, and quote, as needed, citing the texts for all evidence you draw from them. Explain how the evidence supports the point you’re making for each reason.
Use transitions to guide the reader so they can easily follow the flow of your argument:
● To connect the thesis to the supporting reasons
● To connect the reasons to the textual evidence
● To mark the transitions between reasons, counterargument, and rebuttal
Conclusion: Write a conclusion that ends your argument persuasively. It needs to briefly and non-repetitively summarize the argument, elaborate on the implications and significance of your thesis, and suggest direction for further study or action. The conclusion should be at least one paragraph. Also see EW p. 54.
Source Requirements: For the media analysis project, you will need
● At least 4 English-language news media articles about your chosen current event from at least 3 different parts of the world
● At least 2 peer-reviewed academic journal article
****For your news articles, ensure that you provide a complete MLA citation in the Works Cited, with a working link to the article. For any other sources you use, provide both a complete citation and submit highlighted.****
II. Grading Rubric
The assignment will be evaluated based on these criteria
Makes an Argument and Adheres to Assignment:
1. Asks a Level 3 question (implicitly or explicitly) and answers it with a thesis about how a human rights issue in the UDHR is framed in English-language news media coverage of a current event
Presents and Organizes Argument Effectively:
1. Introduction engages readers’ interest in the issue; shows the significance of the issue (the “so what”); answers the question directly with a clear, arguable thesis statement using the assigned formula and makes the connection between the thesis and question clear
2. Title gives the reader direction and focus
3. Presents evidence for counterargument, discusses its merits and flaws, and rebuts it with evidence, showing why the essay’s argument is better, and placing the discussion of the counterargument in the most logical and persuasive place
4. Topic sentences and transitions connect thesis and supporting claims, counterargument, rebuttal in clear and cohesive way
5. Conclusion briefly and non-repetitively summarizes argument, elaborates on implications and significance, and may suggest direction for further study
Supports Argument with Cohesive Reasoning Based upon News Articles and Scholarly Sources:
1. Supports main assertion with at least 3 reasons, developed and illustrated by ample and relevant specific textual evidence, and discussed in the most persuasive and logical order, as specified in the paper’s introduction
2. Chooses relevant sources and uses them effectively
3. Clearly defines the historical and geographical context of the topic, providing background material, including definitions of key terms
4. Quotes and cites the UDHR article
5. Develops and supports reasons with sufficient, compelling analysis of evidence from sources.
6. Makes clear how the evidence supports the reasons
7. Draws evidence and support from at least 4 English-language news articles and from at least 2 relevant, best possible scholarly sources
Effective Use of Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing:
1. Well-developed paragraphs integrate evidence clearly and appropriately
2. Quotes are used sparingly and effectively
3. Paraphrases and summaries are accurate and clear
1. Correct grammar, mechanics, sentence structure
2. Effective style appropriate to a scholar-in-training writing to intelligent peers, and is a pleasure to read, clear, and compelling
Appropriate Format and Accurate Citations:
1. Correct formatting for paper (margins, headings, page #s, etc.)
2. Correct citations in MLA format
Sources Submitted Correctly:
1. For the news articles, provide a complete MLA citation in the Works Cited, with a working link to the article.
Overall Grade Criteria:
A/A-: Meets all of the above criteria at an exceptionally high level, exceeding expectations, in most, if not all instances.
B+/B: Meets most of the above criteria at a very high level, with only minor exceptions.
B-/C+: Meets most of the above criteria at a high level, but has some issues that interfere with full realization of goals.
C/C-: Attempts to meet the above criteria, and for the most part succeeds at an acceptable level, but is difficult to follow or not compelling because of issues with one or more criteria.
D: Meets few criteria; often unclear or undeveloped; errors significantly impair the essay; significant concerns with assignment comprehension, grammar, mechanics, citation conventions, text/source comprehension, and summarizing, paraphrasing, and quoting sources.
F: Fails to meet the above criteria and/or: topic is outside the scope of the course; does not cite any sources; makes substantial errors in citation that rise to the level of academic misconduct; makes widespread and significant grammatical errors that interfere greatly with comprehension; recycles research/writing from an assignment from another course.
III. Submission Checklist
Please do not forget to write “Dear Letter”.
Please remember, your submission is automatically submitted to Turnitin.com.