Type of paper:Article review
Discipline:Humanities : Anthropology
Format or citation style:MLA
Answer each of the following questions in about 300 words each. If you use any sources, besides the textbook and the articles provided, please provide the relevant citations. Please make sure to answer all the parts of each question, and limit direct quotes from the articles (or any other source) to less than 10% of your response.
1. What is Garrett Hardin’s conclusion about communal ownership of natural resources, such as pastures (in other words, describe his “Tragedy of the Commons” thesis, see the PowerPoint for Aug18)? Does evidence from anthropology (p.156 Ember and Ember) support his claim? How do pastoralists and fishers prevent the degradation of their environment? Drawing on the article, CPR_Ostrom (posted Aug 19), describe the main factors that determine the success, or lack thereof, of “common- pool” resources.
2.Which economic forces have led to the deforestation of portions of the Brazilian rain forest? Please refer to the attached article (“Sustforestdev,” posted Aug 19), “Forest Development, the Indian Way,” and describe how the Guarani peoples of the rain forest exploit it without destroying it? Specifically, how do “slash-and-burn agriculture combined with commercial harvesting of natural products offer a more sustainable and sound means for all people to prosper in these fragile forests” (p.132). Why are the rainforests, especially in the Amazon, so important to the world?
3.Colonization and, presently, globalization have often introduced disruptive economic and social forces in traditional societies. Describe how the Mundurucú (p.177-179) of the Amazon basin became commercialized through involvement in trading. What effects did it have on their society? Also, read the attached article, “Subsistence and Market: When the Turtle Collapses (posted Aug 19).” How were the Miskito Indians affected by their incorporation in the market? What are the similarities and differences between the Mundurucu and the Miskitos in how they were impacted by, and how they responded to, external socio-economic forces?
4.Please read the attached article, “On Human Nature .” According to the article, gift giving and receiving (“reciprocal gift giving”) has been always a part of human societies. Furthermore, the article claims that the practice of gift giving is almost always strategic (and not altruistic): that is it is designed to accomplish certain personal or political goals. Using examples from the article, describe the various social and psychological functions of reciprocal gifting in different cultures? How do nations utilize gifting to increase their clout? Do you agree that in almost all instances there are “strings attached” to gift giving?